Functional Pathology Testing

Planet Naturopath offers a wide range of Functional Pathology testing which is available throughout Australia. But what exactly is a Functional Pathology Test and why might you need one. Let’s find out.

In today's healthcare world, functional pathology tests are becoming really important. They provide a closer look into how our bodies work on a complex level.

At their core, functional pathology tests analyze a wide array of biomarkers, including hormones, vitamins, minerals, and antibodies, to paint a comprehensive picture of an individual's health status.

By doing so, they bridge the gap between clinical symptoms and their underlying mechanisms, allowing healthcare providers to design interventions that are as unique as the individuals seeking their care.

This article looks into the essence of functional pathology tests, exploring their significance in preventive medicine, their role in uncovering hidden health dilemmas, and how they're revolutionizing patient care.

From digestive disorders to hormonal imbalances and from nutritional deficiencies to chronic inflammation, functional pathology tests offer a lens through which the subtle nuances of health and disease can be observed, understood, and addressed.

What is a Pathology Test

A functional pathology test is designed to offer a detailed evaluation of how the body is functioning over time, focusing on the root causes of health issues rather than just identifying the presence of diseases.

These tests are pivotal in the field of functional medicine, a branch of healthcare that seeks to treat individuals holistically, considering the complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors affecting health.

Functional pathology tests differ from standard clinical tests by their depth and breadth.

While traditional tests typically screen for specific diseases or markers indicating disease, functional tests assess a wide range of systems to understand the efficiency and performance of various bodily functions.

Here are some key aspects of functional pathology tests:

Broad Scope

They evaluate numerous systems within the body, including digestion, metabolism, absorption of nutrients, the balance of bacteria in the gut, hormonal levels, and the immune system's function.

Predictive Insights

These tests can detect imbalances and dysfunctions before they escalate into serious health problems, offering predictive insights that can guide lifestyle and dietary interventions.

Personalized Medicine

The results help in crafting personalized treatment plans that address the unique biochemical makeup of the individual, rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.

Comprehensive Biomarkers

Functional pathology tests measure a wide array of biomarkers in samples such as blood, urine, stool, and saliva. These biomarkers can include vitamins and minerals levels, hormonal balances, markers of inflammation, and more.

Root Cause Resolution

By identifying the underlying causes of symptoms, these tests aim to provide long-term solutions through dietary, lifestyle, and therapeutic interventions, rather than merely alleviating symptoms.

When Would You Be Recommended a Pathology Test

Functional pathology tests are recommended when there's a need to understand the underlying causes of various health issues, rather than just identifying or treating symptoms.

They are particularly useful in a wide range of scenarios, including but not limited to:

Unexplained Symptoms

When you have symptoms that are difficult to diagnose with standard medical tests, functional pathology can help identify imbalances or deficiencies that might be causing your issues.

Chronic Conditions

For managing chronic diseases such as digestive disorders, autoimmune diseases, or hormonal imbalances, these tests can provide insights into the body's function and how it may be contributing to the condition.

Preventive Health

If you're interested in preventive health measures, functional pathology tests can identify early signs of dysfunction before they develop into more serious health issues.

Optimizing Health

For those looking to optimize their health, such as athletes or individuals interested in anti-aging, these tests can pinpoint areas for improvement that traditional tests might overlook.

Personalized Treatment Plans

If you're seeking a more personalized approach to health care, functional pathology tests can provide the detailed information necessary to tailor treatments to your specific needs.

Nutritional and Dietary Guidance

To better understand nutritional deficiencies or how your body metabolizes certain foods, these tests can offer detailed insights, aiding in the development of a personalized diet plan.

Environmental and Lifestyle Factors

If you're concerned about how environmental or lifestyle factors are impacting your health, functional pathology tests can identify how your body is responding to these stressors.

What Types of Pathology Tests are Available

Functional pathology Tests are recommended in several scenarios, Here's an overview of when one might be recommended a functional pathology test:


DUTCH Test, often conducted through saliva or urine, is specifically designed to evaluate how the adrenal glands respond to stress by measuring levels of cortisol and sometimes DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) at different times throughout the day.

Cortisol is known as the "stress hormone" because it plays a critical role in the body's stress response, while DHEA serves as a counterbalance to cortisol and is involved in immune response and other metabolic processes.

Purpose of the DUTCH Test

The primary aim of the adrenal stress test is to assess the functioning and resilience of the adrenal glands under stress.

It's particularly valuable for diagnosing conditions such as adrenal fatigue (more accurately referred to as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction) or adrenal insufficiency.

These conditions are characterized by a malfunction in the body's stress response system, leading to symptoms like chronic fatigue, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, and an inability to cope with stress.

Adrenal Stress Test

Adrenal Stress Test indicating high cortisol levels

How It Works

The DUTCH Test typically involves collecting urine samples at multiple points throughout the day (morning, noon, evening, and night) to measure cortisol levels and their natural circadian rhythm.

This rhythm should peak in the morning and gradually decline throughout the day, with the lowest levels at night.

An abnormal pattern, such as flat levels throughout the day or a reversed rhythm, can indicate HPA axis dysfunction.

In some tests, DHEA levels are also measured to provide additional insight into adrenal function and the balance between these two critical hormones.

Interpreting Results Of The DUTCH Test

Interpreting the results of an adrenal stress test requires expertise. The patterns of cortisol release throughout the day can provide insight into an individual's stress response and adrenal gland function. For instance:

Elevated cortisol levels throughout the day can indicate an overactive stress response, often seen in the early stages of chronic stress exposure.

  • Lowered cortisol levels, especially in the morning, can suggest adrenal dysfunction as the cortisol awakening response is one of the most important parts of the adrenal test. This can indicate that the adrenal glands may be underperforming due to prolonged stress exposure.
  • Abnormal DHEA levels can further complicate the picture, indicating potential hormone synthesis or regulation issues within the adrenal glands.

Thyroid Hormone Testing

A thyroid hormone test is a common tool used to assess the functioning of the thyroid gland, which is located in the neck and plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism, energy generation, and overall hormonal balance.

The thyroid gland produces hormones that are vital for many bodily functions, and imbalances in these hormones can lead to a range of health issues.

The primary hormones produced by the thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) which is released by the pituitary gland to regulate the thyroid.

Purpose of Thyroid Hormone Testing

The main purpose of a thyroid hormone test is to determine whether the thyroid is functioning properly.

It helps in diagnosing conditions such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), as well as more specific thyroid disorders like Hashimoto's thyroiditis (an autoimmune disease leading to hypothyroidism) and Graves' disease (an autoimmune disease leading to hyperthyroidism).

Types of Thyroid Tests

Several specific tests are included under the umbrella of thyroid hormone testing:

  • TSH Test

Measures the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood. High levels of TSH can indicate hypothyroidism, while low levels might suggest hyperthyroidism. This is often the only test doctors apply to their patients.

  • Free T4 (Thyroxine) Test

Measures the level of free T4 in the blood. Free T4 is not bound to proteins and is available to the tissues. It helps in diagnosing thyroid function. Low levels of free T4 can indicate hypothyroidism, while high levels suggest hyperthyroidism.

  • Free T3 (Triiodothyronine) Test

Less commonly measured but can be useful in diagnosing hyperthyroidism. T3 is the active form of the thyroid hormone and high levels can indicate an overactive thyroid.

  • Thyroid Antibody Tests

Including anti-TPO (thyroid peroxidase antibodies) and TgAb (thyroglobulin antibodies) tests. These can help identify autoimmune thyroid diseases, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland.

  • Reverse T3 Test

Measures the level of reverse T3 in the blood. Reverse T3 is a metabolite of T4 (thyroxine) conversion. This test can be useful in assessing thyroid function, especially in the context of illness or stress where reverse T3 levels may be elevated. It can help differentiate between types of thyroid dysfunction and guide treatment decisions.

When to Get Tested

You might need a thyroid hormone test if you're experiencing symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, constipation, and dry skin. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include weight loss, rapid heartbeat, increased appetite, sweating, and anxiety.

Interpreting the Results

Elevated TSH levels typically suggest hypothyroidism, as the pituitary gland is releasing more TSH to stimulate the underactive thyroid gland.

Low TSH levels generally indicate hyperthyroidism, where the thyroid gland is overactive, and the body is signaling the pituitary to reduce TSH production.

Free T4 and Free T3 levels are evaluated in conjunction with TSH levels to provide a more complete picture of thyroid health.

Treatment and Management

Treatment for thyroid disorders varies depending on whether the thyroid is underactive or overactive. Hypothyroidism is commonly treated with synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine, which replaces the missing T4 hormone. Hyperthyroidism may be treated with medications that reduce thyroid hormone production, radioactive iodine to shrink the thyroid gland, or surgery to remove part of the gland.

It's important to work with a healthcare provider to determine the need for thyroid testing and to interpret the results correctly. They can provide guidance on the best treatment plan based on individual health needs and test outcomes.

Sex Hormone Tests

Sex hormone tests are crucial diagnostic tools used to evaluate the levels of sex hormones in the body, which play a pivotal role in reproductive health, sexual development, and general well-being.

The primary hormones tested typically include estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, although other hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are also important for understanding reproductive health.

These tests can provide valuable insights into various health conditions, hormonal imbalances, and stages of life such as puberty, fertility, and menopause.

Key Sex Hormones and Their Roles


This group of hormones is crucial for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. While estrogen is primarily associated with women, it is also present in men and plays roles in bone health and mood regulation.


Mainly involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. It prepares the body for conception and maintains pregnancy.


The primary male sex hormone, important for the development of male reproductive tissues and secondary sexual characteristics. Though predominantly in men, women also produce testosterone, which affects libido, bone density, and muscle strength.

Indications for Sex Hormone Testing

Sex hormone tests can be recommended for a variety of reasons, such as:

  • Assessing Reproductive Health: Including fertility issues, irregular menstrual cycles, and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
  • Evaluating Sexual Development: Investigating delayed or precocious (early) puberty.
  • Diagnosing Menopause: Identifying the transition into menopause and managing related symptoms.
  • Understanding Hormonal Imbalances: Symptoms might include fatigue, mood changes, weight gain or loss, and changes in libido.
  • Monitoring Hormone Therapy: Evaluating hormone replacement therapy or other treatments involving sex hormones.

Types of Sex Hormone Tests

Blood Tests: The most common method for measuring sex hormone levels, providing insights into the levels of estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, FSH, and LH.

Saliva Tests: Used for assessing the bioavailable (active) portion of hormones, particularly for monitoring hormone replacement therapy.

DUTCH Test: Offer a comprehensive overview of hormone production over a 24-hour period and can be useful for more detailed analysis.

Interpreting the Results

The interpretation of sex hormone test results is complex and must consider various factors, including age, sex, menstrual cycle phase (for women), and specific symptoms.

Normal hormone levels vary widely among individuals and across different stages of life. Therefore, results should be discussed with a healthcare provider, who can consider personal health history and symptoms in their analysis.

  • Elevated or Reduced Estrogen/Progesterone Levels: Can indicate various conditions such as ovarian cysts, PCOS, or menopause.
  • Low Testosterone: In men, it may lead to symptoms like reduced libido, erectile dysfunction, and decreased muscle mass. In women, low levels can affect bone density and sexual function.
  • Elevated Testosterone: In women, high testosterone levels may suggest PCOS.

Treatment and Managements

Management of hormonal imbalances involves addressing the underlying causes and may include lifestyle changes, hormone replacement therapy, or medication to regulate hormone levels.

The approach depends on the individual's symptoms, the specific hormone imbalance, and their overall health goals.

Sex hormone tests are invaluable for diagnosing and managing a range of health issues related to hormonal imbalances.

By understanding hormone levels, healthcare providers can offer personalized treatment plans to improve health and quality of life.

Organic Acids Test

Organic acids tests (OAT) are specialized diagnostic tests that measure the levels of organic acids in urine.

Organic acids are metabolic byproducts of cellular processes, digestion, and the metabolism of nutrients.

Because these compounds are excreted in the urine, their concentrations can provide a snapshot of what's happening inside the body's metabolic pathways.

This type of testing can uncover metabolic blocks or dysfunctions that might not be apparent through other types of testing, offering insights into various aspects of a person's health.

This test is particularly beneficial for children as it does not require a blood draw. 

Purpose and Use

The primary purpose of organic acids tests is to detect abnormalities in metabolic processes that could indicate issues such as nutritional deficiencies, intestinal dysbiosis (imbalance in gut microbiota), mitochondrial disorders, and the body's detoxification processes. These tests are widely used in functional medicine as they can help identify the underlying causes of symptoms like fatigue, digestive issues, and neurological disorders.

What It Measures

An organic acids test typically measures over 70 different markers, including:

  • Metabolites of the Krebs cycle (TCA cycle): Provides insight into cellular energy production.
  • Markers for vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Can indicate deficiencies in B vitamins, vitamin C, coenzyme Q10, and others.
  • Indicators of intestinal bacterial and yeast overgrowth: Certain organic acids are produced in high amounts by dysbiotic bacteria and yeast, pointing to issues like small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) or Candida overgrowth.
  • Neurotransmitter metabolism markers: Can give clues about the balance of neurotransmitters in the brain, which affect mood, focus, and cognition.
  • Detoxification markers: Levels of certain acids can indicate how well the liver is processing and eliminating toxins.
  • Oxidative stress markers: Provide information about the body's antioxidant status and oxidative damage.

How It's Conducted

The test is non-invasive and requires a urine sample, which can usually be collected at home. The sample is then sent to a lab for analysis. Preparing for the test might involve fasting or avoiding certain foods and supplements that could influence the results.

Interpretation of Results

The interpretation of an organic acids test is complex and should be done by a healthcare provider knowledgeable in this area, typically someone practicing functional medicine. The results can guide dietary recommendations, supplementation, detoxification protocols, and other personalized treatments aimed at addressing metabolic imbalances.


Organic acids testing is particularly useful for individuals with:

  • Unexplained fatigue or energy dips
  • Chronic digestive issues
  • Skin problems like acne or eczema
  • Mood disorders, including depression and anxiety
  • Neurological conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder or ADHD
  • Recurrent infections or a weak immune system

By providing a comprehensive overview of metabolic health, organic acids tests offer a powerful tool for personalized health assessments, helping to tailor interventions that address specific biochemical imbalances in the body.

Comprehensive Cardiovascular Assessment

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In the past decade CVD has been the cause of over one-third of all premature deaths in Australia.

The conventional risk factors for CVD include hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diabetes and inflammation. However, in an individual the presence of only one of these factors has a low positive predictive value.

The most advanced strategy for coronary risk assessment is therefore to combine the information of several risk factors; a 'multi-marker' approach which enhances risk assessment.

The comprehensive cardiovascular assessment measures detailed cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as inflammatory and clotting factors which are the drivers behend cardiovascular disease.


Comprehensive 1: Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, ratios, Fasting Glucose, Lipoprotein (a), Apolipoproteins A & B, Homocysteine, Fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (HsCRP).

Comprehensive 2: Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, ratios, VLDL, IDL, LDL Subfractions (x7); Fasting Glucose, Lipoprotein (a), Apolipoproteins A & B, Homocysteine, Fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (HsCRP).

Components of the Assessment

A Comprehensive Cardiovascular Assessment typically includes a variety of tests and evaluations:

  • Blood Pressure Measurement: Essential for diagnosing hypertension, a major risk factor for CVD.

  • Lipid Profile Analysis: Measures levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol), HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol), and triglycerides. This test is critical for assessing the risk of coronary artery disease.

  • Lipoprotein Particle Tests: More detailed than traditional lipid profiles, these tests measure the size and density of cholesterol particles, providing insight into atherogenic risk (the tendency to form plaques in the arteries).

  • Inflammatory Markers: Such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), which can indicate inflammation in the cardiovascular system, a known risk factor for heart disease.

  • Homocysteine Levels: Elevated homocysteine is linked to a higher risk of CVD and stroke.

  • Fibrinogen: High levels can indicate an increased risk of clot formation.

  • Insulin Resistance and Glucose Metabolism Tests: Including fasting glucose and insulin, HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin), and possibly an oral glucose tolerance test to assess for diabetes and prediabetes, which are significant risk factors for CVD.

Why It's Important

Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death globally. A comprehensive cardiovascular assessment can uncover hidden risk factors that might not be apparent until a cardiovascular event occurs.

Early detection allows for timely intervention, including lifestyle changes and treatments that can significantly reduce the risk of developing CVD.

Interpreting the Results

The results of a comprehensive cardiovascular assessment can be complex and should be interpreted by a healthcare professional specialized in cardiovascular health. They can provide a personalized risk assessment and recommend interventions tailored to your specific risk profile. These interventions might include dietary modifications, exercise, stress management techniques, and medications to manage risk factors effectively.

Advanced Stool Test

An Advanced Stool Test is a comprehensive examination of stool to evaluate the health and function of the digestive tract. This type of analysis goes beyond basic stool tests to provide a detailed picture of gut microbiome composition, digestive enzyme levels, the presence of inflammation or infection, and the overall efficiency of digestion and nutrient absorption. It's a valuable tool for diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders, assessing gut health, and guiding therapeutic interventions.

Components of the Analysis

An Advanced Stool Test typically includes several key assessments:

  • Microbiome Analysis: Identifies the types and quantities of bacteria present in the gut, including beneficial bacteria, opportunistic bacteria, and pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria. It may also assess the presence of yeast or parasites.

  • Digestive Enzyme Activity: Measures the levels of enzymes produced by the pancreas that are essential for breaking down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Low levels can indicate pancreatic insufficiency.

  • Inflammation Markers: Such as calprotectin or lactoferrin, which can indicate inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, often seen in conditions like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  • Occult Blood: Tests for the presence of hidden blood in the stool, which can be a sign of colon cancer, polyps, hemorrhoids, or gastrointestinal bleeding.

  • pH Level: The acidity or alkalinity of the stool can provide insights into the overall balance of the digestive process.

  • Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) Analysis: Measures the levels of SCFAs, which are produced by the fermentation of dietary fibers by gut bacteria. SCFAs play a critical role in maintaining gut health and have anti-inflammatory effects.

  • Intestinal Permeability Markers: Can indicate "leaky gut," a condition where the lining of the intestine becomes damaged, allowing toxins and bacteria to enter the bloodstream.

Why It's Conducted

An Advanced Stool Test can be recommended for individuals experiencing symptoms of digestive disorders or for those who wish to assess their gut health as part of a comprehensive health check-up. It's particularly useful for diagnosing and managing conditions such as:

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

  • Chronic constipation or diarrhea

  • Gastrointestinal infections

  • Dysbiosis (imbalance in the gut microbiome)

  • Food intolerances and sensitivities

Interpreting the Results

The results of An Advanced Stool Test can provide valuable insights into the state of the digestive system and gut health. Interpreting these results, however, requires expertise in gastroenterology and functional medicine, as the findings need to be considered within the broader context of the individual's health, symptoms, and dietary habits.

Based on the analysis, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that may include dietary changes, probiotics, prebiotics, digestive enzymes, medications, or other interventions to address identified issues and optimize gut health.

SelfDecode Test

SelfDecode is a personalized health report service that uses DNA testing to provide insights into your genetic predispositions. The company analyzes your genetic data to offer reports on various aspects of your health, including risks for certain diseases, potential responses to different types of diet and exercise, and more. Here’s a breakdown of what SelfDecode offers and how it works:

DNA Testing and Analysis

  • SelfDecode provides a DNA testing kit that you use to collect a sample, usually a saliva sample, which you then send back to their lab for analysis.

  • If you've already had your DNA tested through another service like 23andMe or AncestryDNA, you can upload your raw DNA data to SelfDecode instead of taking another DNA test.

Health Reports

  • Using your genetic data, SelfDecode generates personalized health reports that cover a wide range of topics, such as mental health, sleep, allergies, fitness, and nutrition.
  • These reports aim to identify genetic predispositions to certain health conditions and traits, offering personalized recommendations based on your genetics.

Wellness Plans

  • Beyond the health reports, SelfDecode also offers personalized wellness plans designed to help you optimize your health based on your genetic makeup.
  • These plans might include dietary recommendations, supplement suggestions, and lifestyle changes tailored to your genetic predispositions.

Privacy and Security

  • SelfDecode emphasizes the privacy and security of your genetic information. They claim to not sell or share your DNA data with third parties without your consent.

Subscription Service

  • Access to SelfDecode’s services typically requires a subscription. This can include access to an expanding library of health reports, updates to previous reports as new research becomes available, and tools to track your health progress over time.

Educational Resources

  • SelfDecode also provides educational content aimed at helping users understand their health reports and the science behind the recommendations.

SelfDecode aims to empower individuals with knowledge about their genetics to make informed decisions about their health and lifestyle. However, it’s important to note that genetic predispositions do not guarantee that you will or will not develop certain conditions. It's always recommended to consult healthcare professionals before making significant changes to your health regimen based on DNA testing results.

Digestive Stool Analysis

Gastrointestinal function is important for general health. The intestinal tract contains significant amounts of bacteria - some beneficial, some neutral, and some harmful. Balancing beneficial microbial flora in the gut is key in digestion, nutrient usage, and ridding the body of waste and pathogens. Poor digestion and malabsorption can lead to immune dysfunction, nutritional insufficiency, mental/emotional disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

There are two types of stool tests that I recommend, the most comprehensive is a CDSA 4+  which looks at metabolism, absorption, inflammatory markers, dysbiosis, levels of good and bad bacteria, parasites and yeast infections.

The second type of stool test is a PCR DNA stool test which identifies parasites and bacteria, this is the most accurate way of identifying pathogens.

Functional Pathology Testing Summary

In conclusion, Functional Pathology Testing stands as a transformative cornerstone in the domain of personalized healthcare, illuminating the complex interplay of bodily systems with unprecedented clarity.

Planet Naturopath's comprehensive suite of tests, available throughout Australia, serves not merely as diagnostic tools but as gateways to a deeper understanding of one's health.

By focusing on the root causes of health issues rather than their symptoms, these tests embody the essence of preventive medicine and holistic care. Whether addressing adrenal stress, thyroid imbalances, hormonal fluctuations, metabolic dysfunctions, cardiovascular health, or digestive wellness, functional pathology tests offer a unique lens through which individuals can proactively manage their health.

With this approach, healthcare transcends the conventional, embracing a more nuanced, personalized strategy that aligns with the intricate nature of human physiology.

At Planet Naturopath, alternatives to functional pathology tests are available, and we can offer other tests for environmental toxins, heavy metals, mycotoxins, tick infections, and wheat and dairy intolerances.

If you have any questions about Functional Pathology Testing or consultations simply email and I will be in touch.

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