Ultra-Processed Foods And Their Impact On Our Gut Health

You have probably seen a lot of talk lately about the effects of ultra-processed foods. Some people say they’re poison to the body, while others say they are perfectly fine as part of a balanced diet. 

But what exactly is the truth? Are ultra-processed foods the devil in disguise, or are they getting an unnecessarily bad reputation? Let’s find out more. 

What Are Processed Foods And Ultra-Processed Foods

When it comes to the debate around ultra-processed foods, often times I hear the argument ‘all your food is processed.’ 

To be fair, unless you live on a farm and grow and hunt all your own food, chances are that yes, almost all of our food is processed. 

However, that isn’t the argument; the argument is against ultra-processed foods, and there is a big difference between the two. 

A processed food is a food that has undergone any changes to its natural state, this can be any raw agricultural commodity subjected to washing, cleaning, milling, cutting, chopping, heating, pasteurizing, blanching, cooking, canning, freezing, drying, dehydrating, mixing, packaging, or other procedures that alter the food from its natural state.

Processed foods can include frozen vegetables, frozen meat or fish, canned tuna, bread, plain yogurt, canned tomatoes, cheese, and pasta.

Ultra-processed foods on the other hand are mass-produced, highly altered foods often made from substances extracted from other foods, such as fats, starches, and added sugars. 

Examples of ultra-processed food

Examples of ultra-processed food

They also contain many additives, such as artificial colors and flavors, stabilizers, emulsifiers, and defoaming agents. Ultra-processed foods are often calorie-dense and low in nutrients.

Ultra-processed foods often include steps such as hydrogenation, which produces semisolid oils, and hydrolysis, which enhances flavors. 

These foods also have a variety of additives that help bind the ingredients together to increase their shelf life.

As you can see, processed foods can be classified as such through the simple process of washing an apple. 

In fact, you could even say that if you are handed an already peeled banana that was taken freshly from a tree, that can be considered going through a process.

Ultra-processed foods are classified as such by being highly altered amalgamations of many different foods and ingredients.

The Effects Of Ultra-Processed Foods On Your Health

Health risks of ultra-processed foods

While there has been no direct link to prove how ultra-processed foods cause harm to our body, there is enough evidence to back up the claim that eating a high volume of ultra-processed foods can cause conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, and even mild depression and anxiety

A study from 2019 also proved a link between an ultra-processed diet and weight gain. Research from the British medical journal shows that diets high in ultra-processed food may be harmful to many body systems.

Recent studies such as ‘Ultra-processed foods and human health: What do we already know and what will further research tell us?’ by esteemed journals such as Lancet and Ultra-processed foods: increasing the risk of inflammation and immune dysregulation? By nature.com also has proven the detrimental effects ultra-processed foods can have on the body. 

The Addictiveness of Ultra-Processed Foods

Recent studies have begun to shed light on why ultra-processed foods might not just be hard to resist—they could be downright addictive. 

These foods are often specifically designed to trigger pleasure centers in the brain, leading to patterns of compulsive consumption.

Neurological Appeal

Ultra-processed foods are typically high in sugar, fat, and salt, a combination that can stimulate the release of dopamine, the "feel-good" neurotransmitter. 

This response is similar to what occurs with addictive substances, creating a feedback loop that encourages repeated consumption. 

The rapid absorption of these nutrients into the bloodstream can enhance their addictive properties, making it difficult for individuals to control how much they eat.

Engineered for Addiction

The formulation of these foods often involves precise calculations to achieve what the food industry refers to as the "bliss point," the optimal level of sweetness or palatability that maximizes consumer pleasure—and sales. 

This makes ultra-processed foods particularly compelling, encouraging overeating.

Withdrawal and Cravings

Just like addictive substances, cutting ultra-processed foods from the diet can lead to withdrawal symptoms, including mood swings, cravings, and fatigue. 

This further complicates efforts to reduce consumption and highlights the physiological impact of these foods.

Scientific Findings

A study published in the Public Health Nutrition journal suggests that ultra-processed foods can be as addictive as drugs or alcohol. 

Another research project, using the Yale Food Addiction Scale, found that products like pizza, chocolate, and chips are among the most addictive, largely due to their processing level.

The Effects of Ultra-Processed Foods on Gut Health

Ultra-processed foods, which are heavily modified and contain numerous additives, can also profoundly impact gut health.

They can disrupt the delicate balance of the gut microbiome, the community of microbes that plays a crucial role in digestion, immunity, and overall health.

Firstly, ultra-processed foods often lack fiber, an essential component that feeds the beneficial bacteria in our intestines. 

A diet low in fiber can lead to a decrease in these beneficial bacteria, paving the way for increased inflammation and a higher risk of gastrointestinal disorders. 

Furthermore, the high sugar and fat content in these foods can promote the growth of harmful bacteria and yeasts, leading to dysbiosis—an imbalance in the gut microbiota associated with conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and even obesity.


Additionally, many ultra-processed foods contain artificial sweeteners and emulsifiers, which can further disrupt the gut barrier function. 

This disruption can increase intestinal permeability, commonly known as 'leaky gut,' allowing toxins and undigested food particles to enter the bloodstream. 

This not only triggers inflammation but also increases the risk of autoimmune diseases and metabolic syndrome.

The long-term consumption of ultra-processed foods can also diminish the diversity of the gut microbiota, which is essential for robust gut health. Reduced microbial diversity in the gut has been linked to a range of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

The Gut-Brain Axis: A Crucial Link

The Gut-Brain Axis and Mental Health

The gut-brain axis refers to the complex communication network that links your gut and brain, an interaction that is crucial for maintaining overall health and well-being. 

This bi-directional communication pathway involves various physiological routes, including the nervous system, immune system, and hormones.

Ultra-processed foods can disrupt this delicate axis by altering the types of bacteria that reside in the gut. 

Healthy gut flora produces numerous neurochemicals that the brain uses for the regulation of physiological processes, including mood, appetite, and pain perception. 

For instance, about 95% of the body's serotonin, a key neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, is produced in the gastrointestinal tract.

When the balance of the gut microbiome is disturbed by a diet high in ultra-processed foods, the production of these neurochemicals can be adversely affected. 

This disruption can lead to changes in mood, increased stress levels, and even affect cognitive functions like memory and decision-making. 

Furthermore, the inflammation promoted by gut dysbiosis can send signals to the brain through the vagus nerve and other inflammatory pathways, potentially leading to neurodegenerative diseases.

If you are worried about poor gut health, you can check for the signs of a healthy gut

However, if you are still concerned, consider ordering the Gut Zoomer Test, which provides a comprehensive analysis of your digestion and valuable insights into overall gut health.

Can I Improve My Gut Health After Eating Ultra-Processed Foods?

Reversing the effects of ultra-processed foods on your gut health naturally is possible with mindful dietary choices and lifestyle changes. Here are several effective strategies to improve gut health:

1. Increase Fiber Intake

Start by incorporating more fiber-rich foods into your diet. Foods like fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains feed the beneficial bacteria in your gut. 

These fiber sources act as prebiotics, promoting the growth of healthy gut flora.

2. Probiotics and Fermented Foods

Incorporate probiotic-rich foods such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and kimchi, which introduce beneficial bacteria into your digestive system. 

These can help balance your gut microbiome and counteract the negative effects of ultra-processed foods.

3. Stay Hydrated

Drinking sufficient water is essential for maintaining the mucosal lining of the intestines and supporting the overall function of the digestive system. 

This can help mitigate inflammation and improve gut resiliency.

4. Reduce Intake of Harmful Foods

Processed Foods Gut Health

Try to minimize the consumption of further ultra-processed foods. Reducing the intake of some of the worst foods for your gut health, which include additives, high sugar, and unhealthy fats can prevent further disruption of the gut microbiome and allow it to recover.

5. Regular Exercise

Physical activity can enhance the diversity and number of beneficial bacteria in your gut. Regular exercise is good for overall health, as it helps manage weight and reduce inflammation.

6. Manage Stress

Chronic stress can negatively affect gut health. Stress-reduction practices such as meditation, deep-breathing exercises, and mindfulness can help maintain a healthy gut-brain axis.

By adopting these habits, you cannot only repair the damage that ultra-processed foods might have caused but also build a stronger, more resilient gut microbiome for long-term health benefits.


The evidence is clear: ultra-processed foods have a profound and often detrimental impact on our gut health, which in turn affects our overall well-being. 

From disrupting the delicate balance of our gut microbiome to influencing our mood and cognitive functions through the gut-brain axis, the stakes are high. 

The link between these foods and chronic health issues such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases underscores the need for caution and moderation.

However, the power to change our health destiny lies in our hands—and our diets. 

By shifting towards a diet rich in whole, minimally processed foods, and adopting lifestyle habits that support gut health, we can not only mitigate the damage caused by ultra-processed foods but also build a foundation for long-term health and vitality. 

We encourage you to explore further resources, consult healthcare professionals, and consider tests like the Gut Zoomer to gain deeper insights into your gut health.

Tests To Consider

At Planet Naturopath we offer a wide range of functional medicine testing to help you get to the root cause of your health concerns, or simply help you optimize your health.

You can check our All Tests Available page for the full list of available testing options.

Gut Zoomer

The Gut Zoomer panel is a detailed analysis of gut health, assessing pathogens, beneficial bacteria, and intestinal health markers for inflammation and absorption.

Gut Zoomer Test & Wheat Zoomer

The Gut Zoomer panel is a detailed analysis of gut health, assessing pathogens, beneficial bacteria, and intestinal health markers for inflammation and absorption.
The Wheat Zoomer helps with understanding your reaction to wheat, but even more importantly it identifies leaky gut, high levels of lipopolysaccharides as these are associated with brain health.

Was this article helpful?

Affiliate Disclosure

This website contains Amazon affiliate links, which means we may receive a percentage of any product or service you purchase using the links in the articles or advertisements. You will pay the same price (or get a discount) for all products and services, and your purchase helps support Planet Naturopath’s ongoing research and work. Thanks for your support!

Planet Naturopath Editorial Policy